A scientific paper is one of the mandatory documents that allow you to get a scientific degree. In this regard, the requirements for the design of the paper are constantly changing and becoming more stringent. Thus, a scientific article is a logically complete study of a problem in some area of science. Scientists use the scientific method to conduct research and write a paper.
There are different kinds, classifications, and types of scientific articles, but they all share a common structure of articles. Basically, articles consist of the following parts:
- The title or title of an article is a structural part of a scientific work. The main features are content and brevity. Looking at the title of the article, the reader should understand what it is about. The title of the publication, as well as the text of the entire scientific work should be carried out in a scientific style. The title should contain the main keywords that convey the main idea of the article. It is necessary to translate the title of the article into English well, without the use of transliterations.
- The abstract of a research paper is information that briefly describes the paper. This section of the article, the author writes after the work has been done. This section presents the characteristics of the subject of the article, describes the problems, the purpose of the work and the results obtained as a result. The author must indicate what is new in the material, compared with what has been studied previously and presented in other scientific papers. The abstract should be written in Russian and English.
- Keywords are a set of basic terms that convey the meaning of an article. They help the reader to find a scientific article in electronic databases. Key words are written after the abstract. Depending on the requirements of the journal where the author will place his work, the number of keywords can be from 4 to 8. They are also written in Russian and English.
- Introduction - introductory information. Here more fully presents the topic of the article, the author explains why the study was carried out, for what purpose, what is the theoretical and practical significance of this work. It is obligatory to indicate what research, significant in this area have already been carried out. The problems that have not yet been solved in earlier studies are outlined. Also in this section of the paper, it is necessary to specify the purpose of the research and the object. The paper should present the key purpose for which the article was written. In the introduction indicate the object of research - this is the material on the basis of which the study was conducted. It is also necessary to describe the relevance of the chosen topic - how important it is at the time of writing. Novelty of the article - what distinguishes it from the results obtained by other authors on similar topics. Be sure to provide a literature review - existing works on the topic in question. It is important not just to list the literature, but also to present a critical review of the research results obtained by different authors.
- Main part. Here in full describe what methods were used to conduct the study, present the study itself, and at the end - the results obtained. The latter should be in full form, so that the reader can trace the stages of the study and assess how well-founded the author's conclusions were. This is the largest section of the paper - the basis of the article.
- Conclusion - a brief formulation of the results obtained. It briefly describes the goal achieved, presents the main thoughts. In conclusion, it is necessary to present all the results of the study, draw conclusions and give recommendations where this work can be applied in practice.
There are different types of scientific articles. Their division depends on the subject being studied and the methods used in the research.
Types of scientific articles (review articles, scientific-theoretical, scientific-practical)
- Review articles are scientific papers that provide an overview of the works of scientists on the topic that the author researches. The author analyzes the research carried out by other scientists and draws his conclusions on their basis.
- Scientific-theoretical articles - papers in which the authors analyze current problems on the chosen topic, determines their patterns and describes the causes in detail.
- Research articles are papers that describe the experiments conducted by the author. They present the results of the study in a detailed form, as well as indicating how it can be applied in practice.
Classification by style (analytical, research, scientific-publicistic)
There are different classifications of scientific articles by style:
- An analytical paper is a research paper that analyzes the factors that allow you to solve a scientific problem. Here the author provides the initial data used by him at the initial stage, an analysis is carried out, how the facts and patterns are interrelated. Its distinctive feature - the author uses research methods that are generally accepted. An analytical paper implies reasoning along the lines of "If à then". Such papers should be written only in a scientific style, so the author must use special terms and definitions.
- A research paper is a logically complete study. Such a paper must have an introduction, describing the hypotheses and reasons that prompted the author to conduct the research, and the intended result. Obligatory to present to the reader the experiment conducted by the author, which demonstrates the methodology that the author used to collect data and make observations. Not an insignificant part are the results and conclusions made by the author on the study. A characteristic feature of such a scientific work is a visual demonstration of the experiments carried out, presented in charts, tables, graphs, etc.
- A scientific-publicistic article is a research paper that combines a scholarly and publicistic style. The main difference is the freer form of presentation of the information, which will be available to a wide audience, not only academics.
It is worth noting that there is another classification of scientific articles by type, and it is allocated in a separate type - these are reviews. They analyze the works of scientists on the chosen topic. In such a work, the author can state his opinion, regarding the issue under consideration.
Types of scientific articles by type of publication
Depending on the reputation of the journal in which a researcher publishes his work, his status will be determined.
- Collections submitted from conferences. Conferences often ask participants to submit abstracts of the research they are entering. By putting such abstracts together, a collection is created that presents the contributions from all conference participants.
- University publications. The media of a particular university publish not only the work of students, but may also display all sorts of introductory or entertainment material. It is easier to publish your work in such a publication, but their status is not high enough for high-ranking researchers.
- Popular science newspapers. A person who is not a student or a teacher can present his or her work here. And thus demonstrate their work to a wide range of readers.
- Known scientific journals (VAK, RSCI). Only doctoral candidates may print their work in such publications. The author must submit material of high uniqueness, as well as correctly cited and accurately compiled bibliography.
To summarize this paper, it can be noted that preparing and writing a research paper is a process during which it is necessary: to clearly follow the rules for the content of the paper, to correctly format the text, to present the material logically, and to demonstrate his/her literacy. In a scientific article, there must be facts, supported by references to the cited material, and the author must demonstrate the research that he or she has done on his or her own.